After decades of public housing development that segregated people by race and income and led to pockets of enduring concentrated poverty – housing advocates, government officials and others now promote the development of mixed-income housing to help meet affordable housing needs. With the release by HUD of the affirmatively furthering fair housing (AFFH) rule, there is renewed attention to the feasibility and effectiveness of fostering communities that include households of all incomes. Through the HOPE VI and Choice Neighborhoods programs, the Federal government supports the development of mixed-income housing developments. Outside of these Federal programs, developers have found creative ways to build communities that include housing affordable to a range of incomes. Some neighborhoods have become mixed-income through rapid gentrification and private investment.